|Gentiana asclepiadea & Hosta 'Cool as a Cucumber' 8 August 2022|
Below this short blog you will find the justification for my scan of Hosta ‘Cool as a Cucumber’
If you read you will find out that I was taught well by Brother Hubert Koeppen, C.S.C. in his world history class in the late 50s at St.Edward’s High School, a Roman Catholic boarding school in Austin,Texas. Brother Hubert did tell us that at Zama the Carthagenians lost an empire and disappeared from history except for their descendants, the Phoenicians. But Brother Hubert told us another little detail (he was a funny man and he did this often). It seems that the Carthagenian word for cucumber is cucumbris. We were further informed that this was the only word from their culture that survived. Curiously the Spaniards did not copy that word as in Spanish we call a cucumber a pepino.
I wonder what we would call cucumbers today if the Romans had lost.
|Brother Hubert Koeppen, C.S.C. |
The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal.
After defeating Carthaginian and Numidian armies at the battles of Utica and the Great Plains, Scipio imposed peace terms on the Carthaginians, who had no choice but to accept them. At the same time, the Carthaginians recalled Hannibal's army from Italy. Confident in Hannibal's forces, the Carthaginians broke the armistice with Rome. Scipio and Hannibal confronted each other near Zama Regia. Hannibal had 36,000 infantry to Scipio's 29,000. One third of Hannibal's army were citizen levies, and the Romans had 6,100 cavalry to Carthage's 4,000, as most of the Numidian cavalry that Hannibal had employed with great success in Italy had defected to the Romans.
Hannibal also employed 80 war elephants. The elephants opened the battle by charging the main Roman army. Scipio's soldiers avoided the elephants by opening their ranks and then drove them off with missiles. The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield. Hannibal's first line of mercenaries attacked Scipio's infantry and were defeated. The second line of citizen levies and the mercenaries' remnants assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line. The Roman second line joined the struggle and pushed back the Carthaginian assault. Hannibal's third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army, which had been redeployed into a single line. The combat was fierce and evenly matched. Finally, Scipio's cavalry returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal's army in the rear, routing and destroying it.
The Carthaginians lost 20,000–25,000 killed and 8,500–20,000 captured. Scipio lost 4,000–5,000 men, and 1,500–2,500 Romans and 2,500 Numidians were killed. Defeated on their home ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the 17-year war.