A THOUSAND WORDS - Alex Waterhouse-Hayward's blog on pictures, plants, politics and whatever else is on his mind.




 

Haydn’s Seven Last Words – Crucifixion of the Earth
Wednesday, January 21, 2015



Don José Marcos Ignacio Sáenz de Santa María y Sáenz-Rico


Haydn’s Seven Last Words – Crucifixion of the Earth
January 24, 2015 | 8:00pm | Pre-concert chat with host Matthew White at 7:15
Orpheum Annex 823 Seymour Street, 2nd floor


In 1785 Josef Haydn wrote a chamber work based on the Biblical seven last words spoken by Christ on the cross. Traditionally, the words or phrases are spoken, followed by a meditation on those words, then by the music. EMV, in collaboration with Green College at UBC, have invited renowned BC poets Robert Bringhurst and Jan Zwicky to prepare poetry for each of the seven movements that stimulates a dialogue based on the universal human qualities in the text and also in Haydn’s deeply affecting music.


 


The above is all you need to know about this wonderful concert and I could leave it at that. But if you are slightly curious the events, ancillary and direct that led Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) to write the piece are most interesting and curious.

I have always found it fascinating to know that Haydn was a gifted soprano singer who because of his talent ended up as a boy-singer in the choir at St. Stephen’s in Vienna. George van Reutter the cathedral’s musical director had received a complaint from Empress Maria Theresa that Haydn, now 17, was losing his ability to sing the high notes. Van Reutter called in Mathias Haydn, Joseph’s father, and amateur harpist, and suggested that a surgical solution could save his son’s singing career. We can be thankful to Papa (the real Papa) Haydn that his son’s nether parts were kept intact and somehow they equipped the man to become a great composer.

We must go back to March 1519 when Hernán Cortés Monroy Pizarro Altamirano founded the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz in thanks for having arrived unscathed from battles with the local natives on Good Friday. To make sure his troops stayed Cortés burned the ships. From there he moved inland to Tenochtitlan and New Spain was eventually called Mexico.

Don José Marcos Ignacio Sáenz de Santa María y Sáenz-Rico a priest ordained in 1738 had been born April 25, 1738 in what was then called the New City of Vera Cruz. His father, Pedro Sáenz de Santa María y Sáenz de Almarza was an important businessman. In 1785 the priest’s father died and subsequently the businessman’s eldest son who was a marquis. This is how our priest (most important later on in dealing with Joseph Haydn) became, by inheritance a noble priest.

Around 1730 in Cádiz, Spain, there was a semi-secret religious group of saintly men (a cofradía) who met once a week in an unfashionable and probable zone of ill repute to discuss spiritual matters. The Bishop of Cádiz went in mufti to check them out. Seeing that all was in order (perhaps the men had been warned in advance) the bishop told them to continue their laudable indeavour but that they should do it not in a house but in a church. The place they found was called La Auxiliar del Rosario, a modest oratorio of the 16th century. The men then called themselves la Cofradía de la Madre Antigua. In 1756 they began repair work to spruce up the old oratorio. The oxen which were carrying out the construction debris sank in a hole on San Francisco Street. They found an underground cavern.

Now the year before there had been a catastrophic earthquake in Lisbon (read Voltaire’s Candide) which brought 30 meter tidal waves to Cádiz. It was suspected that was the reason for the hidden cavern. The Diario de Cádiz (newspaper) in 2004 asserted via the archaeologist Inmaculada Pérez that the cavern at one time had been the Phoenician temple to Astarte. Some say that Western Europe's oldest continuously occupied city is Cádiz. It was founded by Phoenicians who called it Gadir or Agadir.

Our noble priest Don José was assigned to be the spiritual leader of the Cofradía in 1771. He had inherited a fortune from his brother and nephew so by 1781 he decided to improve the cavern chapel which was now called Oratorio de la Santa Cueva (cave) but today is called La Iglesia del Rosario.

Don José had a friend who was an avid art collector. He was Don Sebastián Martínez Pérez. He was a personal friend of Goya. Don Sebastián was also a doctor so Goya came to Cádiz for treatment. There is a portrait of Don Sebastián by Goya at the Metropolitan in New York City. Don José commissioned Goya to paint three works, The Parable of the Wedding, a Last Supper and the Miracle of the Loaves and the Fishes.

Cádiz is at the mouth of the Guadalquivir and higher up is the city of Seville famous for its Holy Week ceremonies. Cádiz had the tradition of holding a three hour long reading of Christ’s Last Seven Words on Good Friday. Between the words there were sermons so that it all lasted three hours. Don José through his his musician friends Marquis Méritos and Marquis Ureña contacted Haydn who was the fashionable composer of the time in Spain to write a musical work for the ceremony.

Haydn himself explained the origin and difficulty of writing the work when the publisher Breitkopf & Härtel issued (in 1801) a new edition and requested a preface:


Some fifteen years ago I was requested by a canon of Cádiz to compose instrumental music on the Seven Last Words of Our Savior On the Cross. It was customary at the Cathedral of Cádiz to produce an oratorio every year during Lent, the effect of the performance being not a little enhanced by the following circumstances. The walls, windows, and pillars of the church were hung with black cloth, and only one large lamp hanging from the center of the roof broke the solemn darkness. At midday, the doors were closed and the ceremony began. After a short service the bishop ascended the pulpit, pronounced the first of the seven words (or sentences) and delivered a discourse thereon. This ended, he left the pulpit and fell to his knees before the altar. The interval was filled by music. The bishop then in like manner pronounced the second word, then the third, and so on, the orchestra following on the conclusion of each discourse. My composition was subject to these conditions, and it was no easy task to compose seven adagios lasting ten minutes each, and to succeed one another without fatiguing the listeners; indeed, I found it quite impossible to confine myself to the appointed limits.
 
The work, called “Las siete últimas palabras de nuestro Salvador en la cruz” was finished in the winter of 1786 and was inaugurated in Vienna  March 26, 1787 and in Cádiz on Good Friday April 14 of the same year. One of the instruments used was a Stradivarius cello made in 1720 and presently owned by  Mexican collector Carlos Prieto. Don José paid Haydn in a most unusual way - sending him a cake in which Haydn discovered was filled with gold coins
Manuel de Falla (1876-1946) who was born in Cádiz said that as a young boy he attended a performance of the Haydn work and that it helped inspire him into his career in music.

In Spanish these are the last 7 words:

 
     1.    Padre perdónalos porque no saben lo que hacen. (Lucas 23, 34)

     2.    En verdad te digo que hoy estarás conmigo en el paraíso. (Lucas 23, 43)

     3.    Mujer, ahí tienes tu hijo, y al discípulo Juan: Ahí tienes a tu madre (Juan 19, 26-27)

     4.    Dios mío, Dios mío, ¿Porqué me has desamparado? (Mateo 27, 46)

     5.    Tengo sed (Juan 19, 28)

     6.    Todo está cumplido (Juan 19, 30)

     7.    Padre, en tus manos encomiendo mi espíritu (Lucas 23, 46)                                           

 

Those Spanish words are familiar to me. Since I could remember, when I was five (1946) my grandmother and mother would call me around 1pm from playing outside in the garden on Good Friday. On this day we did not turn on our radio to listen to music. My mother and I would kneel and my grandmother María de los Dolores Reyes de Irureta Goyena would read the above words to us.  We stopped the Good Friday prayers around 1952. In the beginning of the 60s my mother, my grandmother and I moved to in Veracruz. We lived on Calle Martín Alonso Pinzón. Martín Alonzo was the captain of La Pinta, Columbus's second caravel on his first voyage of discovery.


Alex with María de los Dolores Reyes de Irureta Goyena

There are further curious interactions of historical characters around this Haydn composition The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour On the Cross.

In 1800 Lord Nelson and his mistress Emma Hamilton stopped in Vienna on their way (overland) from Naples. They were invited to visit the Prince and Princess Esterhazy. They were feted and served by 100 grenadiers (all 6 ft tall or taller) and they heard a performance of Haydn’s Missa in Angustiis, henceforth dubbed the Nelson Mass. Haydn and Nelson exchanged gifts, the pocket watch Nelson used during the Battle of the Nile and Haydn’s quill with which he wrote the Miss ain Angustiis. Emma Hamilton, who was a fine soprano, sang a Haydn choral work.



In the kind of connections (some might say blurry) that I adore I would like to finish here with these facts. Don José, our rich marquis was born in Veracruz. General George Meade who defeated Robert E. Lee in Gettysburg was born in Cádiz. During the 20-day siege of the Battle of Veracruz from March 9 to March 1847 in what came to be known as the Mexican/American War,  a young engineer, Captain Robert E. Lee  found a way around the city which prevented the city from being demolished in what was the United States’s first amphibious landing.

The battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805, within sight of Cabo Trafalgar, meant that the Spaniards in Cádiz would have been witness to Nelson’s decisive victory.
 
Traditionally the last of the 7 words are from Luke 23:46. But Haydn chose Matthew 27:51ff. for an eighth movement (plus one more as introduction for a total of nine movements). Why? I have my suspicions but I will not elaborate.
 
That last movement is labeled by Haydn:
 
Il terremoto (Earthquake) in C minor – Presto e con tutta la forza.
 
Here is the Mathew 27:51ff from my father's King James Bible:
 
And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened ; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose.
 
When I listen to this last movement I will also imagine oxen falling into a hole on San Francisco Street in Cádiz.

Below is the illustration being used by Early Music Vancouver to promote Saturday's concert. Early Music Vancouver Artistic Director Matthew White saw in my rose scans (roses from my garden scanned on my Epson Perfection V700 Photo) good uses for illustrating the programs and calendar of EMV. He asked me what we could possibly do for Haydn's Seven Last Words – Crucifixion of the Earth. We walked around the garden to my very large and sprawling Rosa 'Albertine' which had finished blooming. It blooms profusely but only once. I  pointed at the thorns. "These brutal thorns (some of the most vicious of all roses) represent the suffering and crucifixion of our Lord. The emerging young shoot is His resurrection." And that was that.







 
 
 
 

 

 

 



     

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9/1/13 - 9/8/13

9/8/13 - 9/15/13

9/15/13 - 9/22/13

9/22/13 - 9/29/13

9/29/13 - 10/6/13

10/6/13 - 10/13/13

10/13/13 - 10/20/13

10/20/13 - 10/27/13

10/27/13 - 11/3/13

11/3/13 - 11/10/13

11/10/13 - 11/17/13

11/17/13 - 11/24/13

11/24/13 - 12/1/13

12/1/13 - 12/8/13

12/8/13 - 12/15/13

12/15/13 - 12/22/13

12/22/13 - 12/29/13

12/29/13 - 1/5/14

1/5/14 - 1/12/14

1/12/14 - 1/19/14

1/19/14 - 1/26/14

1/26/14 - 2/2/14

2/2/14 - 2/9/14

2/9/14 - 2/16/14

2/16/14 - 2/23/14

2/23/14 - 3/2/14

3/2/14 - 3/9/14

3/9/14 - 3/16/14

3/16/14 - 3/23/14

3/23/14 - 3/30/14

3/30/14 - 4/6/14

4/6/14 - 4/13/14

4/13/14 - 4/20/14

4/20/14 - 4/27/14

4/27/14 - 5/4/14

5/4/14 - 5/11/14

5/11/14 - 5/18/14

5/18/14 - 5/25/14

5/25/14 - 6/1/14

6/1/14 - 6/8/14

6/8/14 - 6/15/14

6/15/14 - 6/22/14

6/22/14 - 6/29/14

6/29/14 - 7/6/14

7/6/14 - 7/13/14

7/13/14 - 7/20/14

7/20/14 - 7/27/14

7/27/14 - 8/3/14

8/3/14 - 8/10/14

8/10/14 - 8/17/14

8/17/14 - 8/24/14

8/24/14 - 8/31/14

8/31/14 - 9/7/14

9/7/14 - 9/14/14

9/14/14 - 9/21/14

9/21/14 - 9/28/14

9/28/14 - 10/5/14

10/5/14 - 10/12/14

10/12/14 - 10/19/14

10/19/14 - 10/26/14

10/26/14 - 11/2/14

11/2/14 - 11/9/14

11/9/14 - 11/16/14

11/16/14 - 11/23/14

11/23/14 - 11/30/14

11/30/14 - 12/7/14

12/7/14 - 12/14/14

12/14/14 - 12/21/14

12/21/14 - 12/28/14

12/28/14 - 1/4/15

1/4/15 - 1/11/15

1/11/15 - 1/18/15

1/18/15 - 1/25/15

1/25/15 - 2/1/15

2/1/15 - 2/8/15

2/8/15 - 2/15/15

2/15/15 - 2/22/15

2/22/15 - 3/1/15

3/1/15 - 3/8/15

3/8/15 - 3/15/15

3/15/15 - 3/22/15

3/22/15 - 3/29/15

3/29/15 - 4/5/15

4/5/15 - 4/12/15

4/12/15 - 4/19/15

4/19/15 - 4/26/15

4/26/15 - 5/3/15

5/3/15 - 5/10/15

5/10/15 - 5/17/15

5/17/15 - 5/24/15

5/24/15 - 5/31/15

5/31/15 - 6/7/15

6/7/15 - 6/14/15

6/14/15 - 6/21/15

6/21/15 - 6/28/15

6/28/15 - 7/5/15

7/5/15 - 7/12/15

7/12/15 - 7/19/15

7/19/15 - 7/26/15

7/26/15 - 8/2/15

8/2/15 - 8/9/15

8/9/15 - 8/16/15

8/16/15 - 8/23/15

8/23/15 - 8/30/15

8/30/15 - 9/6/15

9/6/15 - 9/13/15

9/13/15 - 9/20/15

9/20/15 - 9/27/15

9/27/15 - 10/4/15

10/4/15 - 10/11/15

10/18/15 - 10/25/15

10/25/15 - 11/1/15

11/1/15 - 11/8/15

11/8/15 - 11/15/15

11/15/15 - 11/22/15

11/22/15 - 11/29/15

11/29/15 - 12/6/15

12/6/15 - 12/13/15

12/13/15 - 12/20/15

12/20/15 - 12/27/15

12/27/15 - 1/3/16

1/3/16 - 1/10/16

1/10/16 - 1/17/16

1/31/16 - 2/7/16

2/7/16 - 2/14/16

2/14/16 - 2/21/16

2/21/16 - 2/28/16

2/28/16 - 3/6/16

3/6/16 - 3/13/16

3/13/16 - 3/20/16

3/20/16 - 3/27/16

3/27/16 - 4/3/16

4/3/16 - 4/10/16

4/10/16 - 4/17/16

4/17/16 - 4/24/16

4/24/16 - 5/1/16

5/1/16 - 5/8/16

5/8/16 - 5/15/16

5/15/16 - 5/22/16

5/22/16 - 5/29/16

5/29/16 - 6/5/16

6/5/16 - 6/12/16

6/12/16 - 6/19/16

6/19/16 - 6/26/16

6/26/16 - 7/3/16

7/3/16 - 7/10/16

7/10/16 - 7/17/16

7/17/16 - 7/24/16

7/24/16 - 7/31/16

7/31/16 - 8/7/16

8/7/16 - 8/14/16

8/14/16 - 8/21/16

8/21/16 - 8/28/16

8/28/16 - 9/4/16

9/4/16 - 9/11/16

9/11/16 - 9/18/16

9/18/16 - 9/25/16

9/25/16 - 10/2/16

10/2/16 - 10/9/16

10/9/16 - 10/16/16

10/16/16 - 10/23/16

10/23/16 - 10/30/16

10/30/16 - 11/6/16

11/6/16 - 11/13/16

11/13/16 - 11/20/16

11/20/16 - 11/27/16

11/27/16 - 12/4/16

12/4/16 - 12/11/16

12/11/16 - 12/18/16

12/18/16 - 12/25/16

12/25/16 - 1/1/17

1/1/17 - 1/8/17

1/8/17 - 1/15/17

1/15/17 - 1/22/17

1/22/17 - 1/29/17

1/29/17 - 2/5/17

2/5/17 - 2/12/17

2/12/17 - 2/19/17

2/19/17 - 2/26/17

2/26/17 - 3/5/17

3/5/17 - 3/12/17

3/12/17 - 3/19/17

3/19/17 - 3/26/17

3/26/17 - 4/2/17

4/2/17 - 4/9/17

4/9/17 - 4/16/17

4/16/17 - 4/23/17

4/23/17 - 4/30/17